Friday, 5 June 2015



Generally budget for the tourism that tourist needs expanded is spending lodging, transportation, foods, recreation and most memorable is shopping. Shopping is one of the most important factors in tourism (Goeldner, Ritchie and McIntosh 1999). Mowen (1990) points out that shopping is the main reason for traveling for many people.  According to Gee, Makens and Choy, there is no doubt that shopping can add to travel pleasure, since tourists enjoy purchasing unusual gifts and personal items. Shopping is a major tourist activity (Fairhurst, Costello, and Holmes 2007; Kim and Littrell 2001), with souvenir purchases forming a significant component of the shopping expenditure (Littrell et al. 1994; Lehto et al. 2004). Shopping, regardless of amount, is a must component as specified by Gyo Ko (1992:72). “shopping itself may be an exciting activity for some people”
Tourists may be disappointed when they find little selection or nothing to buy at a destination. Gee, Makens, and Choy (1997) claim that even the most casual observation of traveller’s behaviour shows shopping to be the first and last thing visitors do upon reaching and leaving a destination. People make purchases for their family members, friends, business associates, or for themselves before returning home.
Refer to resource from Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia 2010 it can be concluded that shopping is a priority of foreign tourists visiting Malaysia. The activities carried out by local tourist during their tour in Malaysia is also shopping in addition to sightseeing and other related activities as well as coastal and hiking. The same result shown, that shopping is also a major activity for Malaysian traveling to abroad.  The goods that often to purchase by tourists are souvenir, arts and craft, foods, clothing and more.
This led me to think about the shopping behaviour of consumers when traveling. Is shopping become compulsory in tourism? Consumer behaviour is affected by many uncontrollable factors. Consumer behaviour is importantly related to decision-making. Mowen (1990) defines consumer behaviour as the study of the decision-making units and the processes involved in acquiring, consuming, and disposing of goods, services, experiences, and ideas.
Culture is one factor that influences behaviour. Shopping habits while travelling has become the culture whether the types of tourism is for business, recreation, social, cultural, active or sport. Family, relatives and friends are some of the people that give impact on consumer behaviour. Demand of goods or souvenir may influence the decision on what kind of goods to buy.  In addition, some of the family members, relatives, friends and colleagues often give money as a standby to buy goods ordered by them. When returning, the tourist presents the souvenir to these people. This is like a tradition in Malaysia and I believe it also continues in some other countries too.
People's social status will also impact their behaviour. Such as if you are parents, would maybe buy printed t-shirt or craft for their children, or buying fridge magnet for relatives and friends. The lifestyle of someone, income earned and character has an impact to purchase the types of goods or gifts.
Research has also shown that women tend to purchase souvenirs more frequently than men (Littrell, Anderson, and Brown 1993), with souvenirs being more psychologically important to many women tourists (Anderson and Littrell 1996). From the research, finding that men are more likely to purchase discounted and branded products, whilst women are more likely to purchase other categories of souvenirs and in particular, destination specific products. The strongly component reflected the concept of shopping in tourism is to bring back some goods from the holiday, as recognition of the period spent away. It likes a symbolize memories of a tourism experience.
From the result survey and case study I have read, I can made a conclusion that shopping cannot be missed in a trip of holiday and vacation. Most of people shopping in souvenir for gifts, memory and evidence. Some others is for business purpose. The fact is, budgetary for shopping is a must in tourist. Shopping is a dream of everyone so I can say that “No shopping no tourism but no tourism, it still have shopping”.



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